Introducing Aether

Novel Trace Water Measurement For Carbon Capture & Storage



One way to tackle climate change and greenhouse gas emissions is to capture CO2 from fossil-fuelled power stations, hard to abate industrial processes and new transition energy sectors like blue Hydrogen production. The captured CO2 is transported to a site by ship or pipeline and injected into geological reservoirs for permanent storage. This process, is called carbon capture and storage (CCS).


Depending on the capture and combustion processes within an industrial application, the flue gases from CO2 producers contain various contaminants and impurities, with one of the primary ones being water. The CO2 dissolves in the free water phase, reducing the pH to about 3 leading to the formation of carbonic acid which causes significant corrosion leading to leaks and catastrophic pipeline failure.


AIX’s sensor will form the backbone of a real-time moisture monitoring system for CCS facilities to prevent corrosion. It will monitor the water concentrations from each CO2 producer in the network and alert the operator when a producer has exceeded the water threshold and the pipeline will be shut down.

PPMV Range

20-1000 PPMV measurement range

High Pressure

Sensor can operate in high pressures and temperatures

Gas Impurities

Measurement is insensitive to all non CO2 impurities

In Situ Measurement

Probe sensor is integrated directly in the pipeline


Real time measurement of H2O in CCS stream

High Flow Rates

Measurement insensitive to high flow rates of CO2

Low Drift

Sensor has extremely low measurement drift

CO2 is to be transported at significant pressure and temperature. Mixed in with the CO2 are 10-500 ppmv of other gaseous impurities. Reliable measurement of moisture under these conditions is faced with several technical challenges that preclude the application of existing and proven sensor technologies. Spectroscopic techniques require pressure drop systems that introduce significant measurement lag, cost and engineering complexity. Gas chromatography has a prohibitively long response time and traditional electrical sensing approaches like polymer capacitive, resistive and aluminium oxide have significant issues with measurement drift. Traditional chilled mirror hygrometers have also been trialed but the phase behaviour of CO2 is such it can condense before water, leading to a false reading.
Water sensor for carbon capture and storage
Ai Exploration's novel sensor combines optics and imaging to produce a real-time, data-driven chemical substance identification and qualification of moisture. The sensing element is integrated into a robust industrial probe that is capable of directly integrating into the pipeline of CCS facilities. This compact form factor eliminates the need for extractive systems and extensive conditioned rooms to control optics. The sensing has been developed in a way that makes it insensitive to the high pressures and flow rates often experienced in the transport of CO2.

Applications Areas

CO2 Facility Processing
CO2 Transport
Reservoir Management
Application areas for Carbon Capture Sensor


Ai Exploration has formed a Joint Industry Project to develop and test the CCS moisture sensor. The project brings together end users and technical experts in CCS to make sure the technology and commercial product is fit for purpose. If there is an interest to joint the consortium or find out more please don't hesitate to get in touch through our contact page.

Award Winning Technology

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Ai Exploration's rapid growth and innovation has been recognised through multiple awards and accolades from Innovation organisations like the Net Zero Technology Centre and global companies like BP and Chevron.
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